Etruscan Glossary A-AL

Compilation and translations from French, Italian and Latin
by Rick Mc Callister and Silvia Mc Callister-Castillo ©1999

-a place name suffix, also used to derive family names from praenomina [lrp 57]

-a feminine suffix [mp68: 395]

-a plural suffix [mp68: 395]

ac "make, offer" [g/lb83, lb 90, mp 75]
acas "to make, to present, to offer" [mp68, pa, dep]
"to proclaim" > "to manifest" [az96]
acasa "[to have] proclaimed" [az96]
acasce "did, made" [am91, mp68, pa, dep]
acasri "to be offered" [mp68: 409, pa, dep]
acazr "objects offered in the tomb, offered" [g/lb83, 85: 162; mp68, pa, dep]
probably plural form of *cas "offer" [dep]
from same root as acas [dep]
see acnasver "venerable" [az96]
acil "to do, make" [az96]
"work" [mc91]
acilth ame "make, complete (confice)" (imp.) [az96]
acilu, acilunia title, cognomen [az96, mc91: 67]
< acil "work" [mc91: 67]
"doer, maker, worker" [az96]
see Breton kas "to send" very doubtful [dep]

-ac, -ax nominative suffix for words ending in consonants [az96: 27]

*acale, *acle "June" [g/lb83, mc91, mp68, pa, dep]
Latin gloss aclius, aclus [g/lb83, gm97, mc91, mp68]
"excitement, stimulus" [az96]
acalve "in June" (locative) [az96]
see *acaletur [rmcc]
< *ak- "point" [az96]
calque of Latin Junius < juniores? [rmcc]

acalia "refinement" [az96]
see Latin acumen "point, sting" [az96]

*acaletur, *acalethur "boy" [az96: 25, mp68]
acalucva "youth?" [az96]
acathur "boy" [pa]
glossed in Greek as agalé:tora [mp68]
< *yegw- "young" [az96: 25]

acenna place name [lrp 57]

acerra "incense box" Latin of Etruscan origin [lrp 57]

acila "handmaiden" [g/lb83]
see Latin ancilla "maidservant" [g/lb83]

acline, aclinei family name [az96]
"pointed, sharp" [az96: 25]

aclni "guide" [az96]
acnaice "to conduct, to make so" [az96]
acnaine "[one] who guides" [az96]
acnanas, acnanasa 'having had, bore, delivered" [g/lb83 84, mc91: 134]
"having driven, guided" [az96]
< *ak- < *ag- "to conduct, to drive" [az96]

aclxn "sharp" [az96]
see Latin acutum "sharp" [az96]
see Latin acumen "point, sting" [az96]

acnasvers "funeral? cremation?"
"gave in possession" [lb 299]
see verse "fire" [mcv 8 Nov 96]

acnina "possession" [mp68: 405]
"hostility, threat" [az96]
acns "terror, veneration?" [az96]

acri, acriina "acrid, pungent, sharp" [az96]
acrie "pointed" [az96]
acriena family name [az96]
acsi, ahsi "pungent, sharp" [az96]
akarai, axarum, axrum "affliction" [az96]
acnasver "venerating" [az96]
< acrie [mc91: 96]
< *ak- [az96]

acun- "greetings, health" [az96]
see axu [az96]

acvilnas family name [mc91]

afle name [mc91]
"propitious" [az96]

afr, apher, apha, afu, aphucu, apuchapre, hapuri, hafure "luck, fortune" [az96]
apana "chance, achievement, attainment" [az96]
apane "relating to luck" [az96]
apena "chance, fortune" [az96]
aphe demon [mp68: 407]
"chance, mishap, occurance, fortune (divinity)" [az96]
apice "capture, attainment" [az96]
apru, aprun, apira "April" month dedicated to Fortune [az96, lrp 48/57]
apire "luck" [az96]
apirthe, apurthe cognomen,"lucky" [az96: 22]
apre "occurence, fortune, chance, mishap" [az96]
apu "receiver, obtainer" [az96]
apunas, afunas, haphna family name [g/lb83 71]
"fortunate" [az96]
< *ap/ *aph / *hap / *haph [az96]
see afur, apur, apurthe, afunas, apunas, haf- hap-, haph- [az96]
see Latinized Aburi [az96]
see Latin apiscor "to reach for, acquire" [az96]
see Latin Aprilis, aprilis [az96, lrp 48/57]
see Latin aptus "suitable" [az96]
see Latin habeo "to have" [az96]
see Spanish apenas "scarcely, hardly" [rmcc]
see Umbrian hab-, [az96]
see Greek aphro, Aphrodite [az96, lrp 48/57]
see Greek haphê, háp-tô "to take, to have" [az96: 22]

afu "striker, collector, hitter" [az96]

afuna family name [g/lb83 76]

-aias, -ies genitive singular for -ai stem [b/k 32]

ain, ein "property" [az96]

ais, aiS, eis "god" [az96, cb, djh 14, g/lb83, mc91, mp68, v, pa, dep]
aisar, ais-er-as, ais-er-aS, aesar, eisar, eiser, eis-er-as, eis-er-aS "gods" [az96, cb, djh 14, g/lb83, mc91, mp68, v, pa, dep, gm97, gzb]
aisiu "godly, divine" [g/lb83 80]
aislu "divine" [az96]
aisna, aisuna, eisna "divine, of the gods, divine service" [az96, g/lb83, mc91, pa, dep]
aisuna "king of the sacred (rex sacrorum)" [az96]
aineri "to be worshipped" gerund [az96]
eisnev, eisnevc priestly title [mp68]
esari sacral term [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
"to worship" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
see North Picene aiten [er 9 Feb 98]
see Umbrian esono- "divine, sacred, sacrifice" [mcv 8 Jan 97, mp68: 262]
see Oscan aisusis "sacrifices" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
see Marrucian aisos "god" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
see Paelignian aisis "god" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
see Volscian esaristrom "a sacrifice" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]
see Old Norse aesir [pa]
see Old Icelandic ass "gods" [dep]
see Cretan asasara divine name [dep]
see Celtic and Germanic *isarn- "iron", "holy or sky metal" from meteorites [Benvéniste 1969 cit. dep]
see IE ais- "to want, love, seek" [EB XXII 638, mcv 8 Jan 97]

aita, eita "Pluto, Hades (divinity)" [az96, g/lb83, EM]
"fear, veneration" [az96]
< *aghi-, *aghita- [az96]
see Greek Haides [g/lb83]

aius, aiuzie, plural aiuser "response" [az96]

aivas, eivas, evas "Ajax" [az96, g/lb83 67, mc91: 45]
"Terror" [az96]
aivas tlamunus "Ajax Telamon" [g/lb85: 162]
aivas vilates "Ajax Oileus" [g/lb85: 162]
< *aghi-vas [az96]
see Greek Aivás, *Aiwas [g/lb83 67, mc91: 45]

aixe "agitated, waving" [az96]

aiza "to worship" [az96]

aka "voice, speaker" [az96]
< *vekw- [az96]

-akh corresponds to North Picene -ag [er 9 Feb 98]

aklxis "finesse, sharpness" [az96]

al-, ala, ale, alice, alce, aliqu, alqu, alxu "to give, donate, offer" [mp68, g/lb83, vs/amr 189, pa, dep]
see Nostratic *HalV "to give" [ag 79]

-al, < *-a-la; -aith genitive & adjective suffix [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 351]
-al genitive, dative, adjective, possessive, diminutive or ablative suffix [gm97, pa]
-al, -l dative suffix [sag]
-ale dative suffix for -a stem [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 99]
< *-a-la-i [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 99]
-al-thi locative of genitive [pa]
< *-a-la; -aith [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 351]
genitive of genitive [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 394]
< -a-la-si; al-iS-la [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 394]
see Lemnian -ai, -aith, -ale, -ial [mp68: 99]

ala "[to be] vital, lively, moving, boldly" [az96]
alathna "one who drives, puts in motion, action" [az96]
ale "to be vigorous" [az96]
alixsantre, alcsentre, elaxsntre "Paris Alexander" [g/lb83]
"vigorous" [az96]
alki "dynamism, liveliness" [az96]
< *al-, *el- , *al, *el "motion, animation, activity" [az96]
see Latin alacer "vigor" [az96]

alapu "to slap" [az96]

-alas, -als ablative suffix for -a stem [mcv 9 Apr 99, mp68: 394]

-alc, -alx decile suffix [mp68: 398]

alcsti "Alcestis" [g/lb85: 145]

ale, alice, alce, aliqu "to give thought, cured, something cured" [az96]
alixa "cure, thought" > "gift" [az96]

alethnas family name [g/lb85: 121, mc91: 62]

alfa "white, shining" [az96]
see Latin alba "white, shining" [rmcc]

alfniS name [mc91]

alice "make" [mc91]
aliqu "made, given" [mc91: 66]

alpan, alpanu, alpnu "gift, offering, willingly; Harmonia?, Concordia?" [pa, g/lb83]
"offering" [mp68]
"pleasant thing, happiness, Laetitia (Grace)" [az96]
a lasa, goddess of love and the underworld, usually portrayed naked [EM]
probably from same root as al [dep]
alphaze "offering" [g/lb83, gzb, dep, pa]
probably from same root as al [dep]
alpnina "joy, happiness" [az96]
alpnu "as a gift, given" [mp68: 406]
alfazei "happiness, propitiousness" [az96]
alfn- "happy, joyous" [az96]

alS, alSa "July" [az96]
alSase "in July" [az96: 17]
alSin- "rouser, shaker" [az96]
alSter "shaker, rouser" [az96]
althra "moved, driven" [az96]
altria "one who moves, waves" [az96]
< *althi "waving, wavering" [az96]

alsase "dedicated?" [lb 299]

alSinai family name [g/lb85: 120]

alsium port of Caere [mp68: 180]

althaia "Aithra (Helen's serving maid)?" [g/lb83]

alumnuathe, alumnuath "fosterchild" [az96]
alumnathuras ? [mp68: 265]
"group of fosterchildren, followers?" [rmcc]
-thuras collective suffix [mp68: 265]
see Latin alumnus "fosterchild" [az96]

alxa, alxu-, alxuna, alxun, alqum, alqu epithet of the Dioscuri [az96]
"dynamic, vigorous" [az96]

alxumena, alcumena "Alcmene" [g/lb83, mc91]

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The compilers thank Adolfo Zavaroni for his generous assistance and objectivity.
We thank Gabriela Mc Callister-Castillo for her research assistance.
We thank G. Bruce Cobbold for his inspiration.

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