Etruscan Glossary AM-AR

Compilation and translations from French, Italian and Latin
by Rick Mc Callister and Silvia Mc Callister-Castillo ©1999

am-, ama, ame, amu-, amce, amuce "to be" [cb, g/lb83, jf, lb 90, mc91, mp68/75, v, pa, dep]
amuce "has been" [g/lb83 56]
"may it be?" [mcv 8 Nov 96]
-ce aorist imperative? [mcv 8 Nov 96]
see English be [dep]
see Breton bezan "to be" [dep]
see Latin fui [dep]
see Sanskrit bhavati "he becomes" [dep]
see Latin fuisse "to have been" [dep]
see Russian byt' "to be" [dep]
see Lithuanian buti "to be" [dep]
see Indo-European *mbhew "to grow, to become, to be" [dep]
see Nostratic *'ämV "to take, to bear" [ag79]
see Nostratic *'EmV [ag 79]

ama "now, meanwhile" [az96]
amce "united, joined" [az96]
ame "with" postposition [az96, dep]
amake "married, spouse" < "joined" [az96]
aminth "Cupid, Eros" [g/lb83]
"Amor?" [az96]
amth-ni "loving, benevolent" [az96]
amuce, amuxe "continual, perpetual, eternal" [az96]
< *am- "to love, to be joined to, to be with" [rmcc]
< ? am- "to be" i.e. "for the time being" [rmcc]
see Lydian ama- "to love" [dep]
see Breton afan "to kiss" [dep]
see Brythonic *ama "to love" [dep]
see Celtic aman "to love" from Latin, Italo-Celtic or loanword? [es]
see Basque maite "love, beloved" < bani-te [es]
see Basque emán < e-bani "to love" [es]
< Celtic [L Trask?]
see Latin amare "to love"[cw, rc]
see Latin amita "aunt" [cw 2]
see Latin amicus "friend" [cw 2, pb 24-25]
see Latin cum "with" [az96]
see English by [dep]
see Gothic bi "at, about" [dep]
see German bei (originally) "beside" [dep]
see Greek háma "with" [az96]
see Greek phi instrumental independant particle [dep]
see Achaean amphí [es]
see Latin -b-, -bi, -bus ablative-dative plural mark [dep]
see Latin ambi-, ambo [es]
see Sanskrit bhyas dative ablative plural later integrated into the declension [dep]
see Slavic and Germanic -m dative and instrumental plural integrated early into the declension [dep]
see Russian -ami instrumental plural case marker [dep]
see IE particle *mbhi [Martinet, From the Steppes to the Oceans; cit dep].

amaputunia "co-hibens, one who stops, contains, represses" [az96]

ammarce "bitter, pungent?" [az96]
amre "bitter" [az96]
< *ampar- [az96]
see Latin amarus "bitter" [az96]

ampile, hamphe "May" [g/lb83, az96, pa, dep]
< *ampilie, *anpilie [g/lb83, az96]
see probable Etruscan related substrate word *embhetl, *mbheti [dep]
see Latinized form amphiles, ampiles [g/lb83, az96]
see Greek ampellos "vine" [dep]
see Breton aval "apple" [dep]
see English apple [dep]
see Russian yablako "apple" [dep]
see Hungarian amna "apple" [dep]
see Finnish omena "apple" [dep]

amplieri "to widen" [az96]
amplus "wide" [rc 48]
apeli "enlarger" [az96]
< amp-, ap- [az96]
Latin of Etruscan origin?

amurca "oil dregs" Latin via Etruscan [g/lb83 65]
see Greek amórgê [g/lb83 65]

an, ana, ananc, ane, anc, ancn, ancu "he, she" [cb, g/lb83, v, pa]
relative pronoun [az96, dep, mc91, mp68]
see Russian on "he" [dep]
see Breton an "the" [dep]
see Lithuanian anas "this" [dep]
see Nostratic *'a "that, yonder" remote demonstrative pronoun
see Nostratic *NA, IS OS II 93--4 [ag 79]

ana "compliment, execution, finished product, perfect" [az96]
anace "carried out" [az96]
anaini "worker, executor" [az96]
anan-, anaie, anai, anei, ane "one who completes, carries out" > "earnings, gain" [az96]
ananc "to gather, obtain" [az96]
ane, ani "Janus" [g/lb83]
"year" < "complete cycle" [az96]
aneie, aneiece "to have accomplished" [az96]
< *an- [az96]
see Latin anno [az96]

anancve "consequently" [az96]

-anas, -anasa active perfect participle [mcv 22 Jan 98]
see IE passive perfect participle *-no- [mcv 22 Jan 98]

avavence "bore, gave birth to" [g/lb83 70]

anc "to fold" [az96]

ancaru "goddess of Death" [lrp 48, rah 59]
see Latin Angerôna [lrp 48, rah 59]

ancn compound particle [mp68: 397]

ani "Janus"; sky god living in the highest heaven (in the north) [EM]
ani thne celestial deity [mp68: 251]

aniaxei "anguish, pain" [az96]

anina name (masculine) [pa]
aninai, aninas male name [g/lb83 71, mc91]
aninie, ninie family name [g/lb83 112]
anina-i name (feminine) [pa]

antemna, antenna "sail yard" Latin from Etruscan [mp68: 369, pa]

*antha, *amtha "eagle, north wind (Boreas)" [az 96, mp68, pa, dep]
Greek gloss (Hesykhios) ánthas, ántar, ándas, ándar [az 96, mp68]
see Sanskrit bhâsas "raptor" [dep]
see Greek phênê "vulture" [dep]
see Indo-European *mbhattos [Martinet, 1986 cit.dep]

antha "to meet, come to blows" [az96]
anthai name "chance, one who meets, encounters" [az96]
anthiaia name "fortune" [az96]

antilxe "winnowing, crowd, worry, trepidation" [az96]

anxarie "point, tooth" [az96]

anxas "anxious" [az96]

anxe male name [mc91: 48]
see Latin Ancus [mc91: 48]

apa, aphe, aphes, apars, afrs
"father, ancestor" [b/k 32, cb, g/lb83, lb 90, mc91, mp 75, v, pa, dep]
"father, guardian" [az96]
apa apatie "paternal grandfather" [az96]
apa nacna "grandfather" [az96]
apana "paternal" [mc91]
see Greek appa, possibly a Semitic loan-word) [pa]
see Greek apa "father" [dep]
see Latin pater "father" [dep]
see Gothic fadar "father" [dep]
see Old Irish athir "father" [dep]
see Armenian hayr "father" [dep]
see Sanskrit pitar "father" [dep]
see Tocharian A pacar "father" [dep]
see Indo-European *phater [dep]
the root is probably universal [dep]

apaiatru, apiatru "one who grasps, links" [az96]

apcar "abacus" [az96, pa, dep]
see Latin abacus [mc91]
see Greek abaks "board, tablet" [dep, mc91]
see Hebrew abaq "powder" [mc91]

aper, apir-e, apir-es, apir-ase, apirthe, apir-the-s, aper-ucen "sacred, funeral or sacrificial act" [mp68]
see Latin parentare "to honor or avenge a relative" [mp68]
apir- act associated with religion [mp68: 409]
aprensais, aprenSaiS "the gods intending" [mp, az96: 396]
"in the last" [az96]
aprinthu, aprinthvale "sacred title" [mp68];
"next, last" [az96]
aprinth-vale "last good-bye" [az96]

aperu "to join, find" [az96]
apha "to strike, hit, impress, gather" [az96]
apu "receiver, obtainer" [az96]

aphe demon [mp68: 407]

apini name "suitable, (well) connected" [az96]

aplu, apulu "Apóllôn" [cb, djh 95, g/lb83, mc91: 53]
"Apollo"; god of thunder and lightning [EM]

apnis "much, a lot" [az96]

aprensais, aprenSaiS "the gods intending" [mp, az96: 396]
"in the last" [az96]
aprinthu, aprinthvale "sacred title" [mp68]
"next, last" [az96]
aprinth-vale "last good-bye" [az96]

aprthni female name [mc91: 135]

apunei female surname [gm97]
apuniie family name [mc91: 112]

aputuke "agreed, pledged [az96]

apvcuia (family?) name [mc91: 101]

ar-, er- "to make, to build, to do" [g/lb83, pa, dep]
ar, ara, are, ar-aS, ar-aSa, arce, ar-th, er-ce, er-s, er-ce "to act through movement, including ritual acts?" [mp68]
"to drive, exhort, rally" [az96]
aras "making, preparing" [g/lb83 85]
"sustaining, continuing" [az96]
see Lemnian arai [mp68]
see Nostratic *HarV "to make" [ag 79]
see Latin arare "to plow" [dep]
see Breton arat "to plow" [dep]
see Greek aroo "to plow" [dep]
see Gothic arjan "to plow" [dep]
see Lithuanian ariu "to plow" [dep]
see Indo-European *ary- "to plow" [dep]-

ar plural [mcv 8 Nov 96]

*arac "falcon" [g/lb83, mp68, pa, dep]
Greek gloss árakos [g/lb83, mp68]
see Gothic ara "eagle" [dep]
see Greek ornis "bird" [dep]
seeBreton erer "eagle" [dep]
see Lithuanian aras "eagle" [dep]
see Hittite haras "eagle" [dep]
see Indo-European *oros "eagle" [dep]

arce "gave, bore" [mc91]

arcmsna, arcmsnas family name [g/lb85: 161]
"one who afflicted, angry" [az96]

*arêt- "Arezzo (town)"
arntni "person from Arezzo" [az96]
see Latin Arrêteium
see German Erz "metals (Arrezzo was famous for metal ware)" [g/lb83 25]

ariatha, aratha "Ariadne" [az96]
"nourisher, magnifier" [az96]

aril "supporter, Atlante" [az96]

*arim "monkey" [az96, g/lb83 59, mp68, pa, dep]
Greek gloss árimos (Hesykhios) [g/lb83 59, mp68, pa]
< *arim, *arime [az96: 418]
arimna "Rimini (town)"
see Latin Ariminum [g/lb83, djh 14]

aritimi, artume, artam, artms, artumes, arthem "Artamis, Arte:mis" [g/lb83, mc91: 41, mp68: 245]
"goddess of spells and prophecy?" [az96]
"Artemis" goddess of night and death, personification of natural growth [EM]

arna "to afflict, affliction" [az96]
< *ghren [az96]
arnt, arnth, aranth, arath male name [mc91: 49/96, gm97]
corresponds to Latin Lucius [g/lb83 57]
"biting" < "fierce" [az96]
< ghren-d- [az96]
aranthur, arnthur male name [g/lb83 83, mc91]
araz male name [g/lb85: 46]
arnthal name [mc91]
arnthi female name [mc91]
counterpart of male arnth [mc91]
arnthia, arathia, aranthia name [mc91]
arnthna, arathena, araziia family name [mc91: 49/96, gm97]
arnti, arntle "which gnaws, bites, chews" [az96]
arnzius, arntsus name [mc91]
artnal "son of Arrius" [g/lb83 57]

ars- "push away?" [g/lb83]
"to turn away, drive away, remove" [pa, dep]
arse verse "take away fire?", "arce ignem " [mp68]
glossed by Verrio Flacco [mp68]

arSva "(two?) smashers" [az96]
arta "breaker, smasher" > "carpenter (Vulcan)" [az96]
artesi "brooch and pin?" [az96]
arth "to section or subdivide" [az96]
arthe velna "one who severs, cuts off" [az96]
artile "one who articulates, artesan" [az96]
artna "limb, member, part" [az96]
artna mempru/memru "one who subdivides in parts" [az96]
< *arth [az96]

arus ame "to encourage" [az96]
aruseri "encourager" [az96]
arusia "exhortation, push" [az96]
arusni "one who encourages, spurs" [az96]
arvasa "having pushed, driven, raised" [az96]
arvusta "rallied" [az96]

aruSis "ceramic" [az96]
aruzina, aruuzina "potter" [az96]

arxas "strident" > "argumentative" [az96]
< *ark < *werk [az96]

arxaze "clear, witty, rattling"
see Latin argutus "clear, witty, rattling" [az96]

This page represents the opinion of the author
and does not reflect the policies of the Mississippi University for Women.

The compilers thank Adolfo Zavaroni for his generous assistance and objectivity.
We thank Gabriela Mc Callister-Castillo for her research assistance.
We thank G. Bruce Cobbold for his inspiration.

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